Title: Management and Coordination
Objectives: (i) supervision of project budget implementation; (ii) preparation of the reports, cost statements, project documents required by the ERAMIN2; (iii) coordination, organization and preparation for the technical reviews; (iv) organization and coordination of the internal review of deliverables; (v) supervision of IPR, knowledge management and innovation management; (vi) coordination of the dissemination, exploitation and communication activities; (vii) supervision of gender-related issues.
Description: The work package entails the coordination of the different research activities and intends to manage their development in a timely fashion. Part of the work package activities include the organization of regular exchange meetings and, the production of reports and meeting-minutes
Title: Leaching Parameters Screening and Optimization
Objectives: The overall objective of this WP is the optimization of leaching parameters, especially leaching yield, for each noble metal. This is achieved keeping in mind environmental concerns and economic constraints of oxidizing and reducing agents utilization.
Description: As a proof-of-concept, successful demonstration of the transient Pt and Pd dissolution using O3 and CO as oxidizing and reducing gases, respectively, was successfully demonstrated and recently published by Hodnik et al. [https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13164]. The most important parameters in transient dissolution are oxidation extent, oxidation and reduction kinetics, and complexing ligands strength. Typically, noble metals are characterized by relatively sluggish oxidation kinetics and strong passivation by the formed thin oxides. This implies that the extent of oxidation is relatively low. As an outcome, some hundred cycles may be required to dissolve materials completely, even when a strong oxidizer such as O3 is used. Both anodic and cathodic dissolution can be accelerated significantly when a proper complexing ligand, e.g. Cl- or Br-, is added to the electrolyte.
In general, the highest dissolution yield for each material is achieved at different leaching conditions. To accelerate the experimental discovery of such optimal conditions for Au and Ag, but also for Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir and Ru, a highthroughput SFC-ICP-MS setup will be used. The latter consists of a V-shaped cell connected to an ICP-MS, which can be easily moved from one electrode to another, connected to an ICP-MS. This allows multielemental time- and potentialresolved on-line analysis of metals leaching and identification of the extent of anodic and cathodic dissolution. Due to the limitations of ICP-MS, mild model electrolytes will be used in T1.1 and T1.2. More tolerant towards pH and amount of chemicals dissolved in solutions, SFC-ICP-OES and SFC-UV-Vis will be used in T1.3 with electrolytes resembling those used in WP2. Building on the concept of the transient dissolution, current WP will identify optimal leaching parameters mainly for Au and Ag, but also for Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir and Ru. To achieve this, the dissolution yield in presence of various complexing ligands will be quantified using model foil electrodes and an externally controlled potential (T1.1). The most promising complexing ligand/potential combinations will be replicated controlling nature, concentration and exposure time of oxidizing/reducing agents (T1.2). Finally, leaching parameters will be optimized at real reactor conditions with respect to environmental and economic constraints (T1.3). (TRL 4)
Title: Transfer to TRL5 Prototype (Small-Scale Reactor, SSR)
Objectives: The main objective is to design and construct a small-scale reactor and testing how different parameters affect leaching efficiency/yields. Description: The design of the small-scale leaching reactor was chosen to enable flexibility with the operation regimes and input material, modularity and high efficiency. For that reason, double tank stirring reactor with batch or continuous modes is proposed (Figure 2). In this WP the feasibility of this reactor will be tested by modeling and by measuring the leaching efficiency. Leaching parameters obtained from JÜLICH in WP1 will be implemented and their efficiency in the reactor will be tested by coupling to online analytics like UV-VIS or even ICP-OES. Firstly, model samples (commercial powders) and secondly real scrap sample containing noble metal (provided by BOSCH) will be tested. All of the operating parameters will be gathered and delivered to WP4 and WP 5. The final design of a reactor will be done by keeping in mind environmental concerns and economic constraints provided by LCA and cost evaluation performed by BOSCH in WP4 and WP5. (TRL: 5)
Title: Recovery by Electrodeposition: Proof of concept
Objectives: (i) examination of noble metal’s extraction potential by means of electrodeposition, (ii) investigation of the influence of electrodeposition parameters on the extraction efficiency, (iii) design and construction of an Electrodeposition Flow Module (EFM) and (iv) exploring selective electrodeposition.
Description: Methods and techniques developed and used in WP1 and WP2 for leaching, after a minor modification, can be used for extraction of noble metals by means of electrodeposition. Hence, as a proof of concept, SFC and a EFM will explore extraction efficiency and selectivity of electrodeposition. (TRL: 1)
Title: Life Cycle Processes
Objectives: (i) evaluation of the process chain in a decentralized recycling infrastructure and (ii) identification of the corresponding technological solutions for disassembly, pre-treatment and logistics
Description: The process developed in the overall project to recycle precious metals enables decentralization of recycling. Accordingly, an adaption of the processes in the product lifecycle, especially in the recycling phases, is necessary, as logistics, dismantling and pre-treatment are subject to different requirements. Within WP4, the objective is to evaluate the process chain exemplary by the recycling of refuse in production plants at Bosch. Afterwards it will be examined how the results can be transferred to other products (Bosch external) that need other product take-back options (e.g. via recycling centers, distributors and other business models like leasing). The results of this WP provide a basis for the LCA and LCC in WP5.
Title: Life Cycle Costing and Life Cost Analysis
Description: The primary focus of LCC and LCA analysis is to describe the process that is being developed with its material input and output, equipment and labor costs, primary input: WP2. Furthermore, for the technical process the residues of a production plant will be regarded as a fictitious product to describe the complete life cycle and calculate the life cycle costs (LCC) within defined boundary conditions and assumptions. WP4 will provide the input for logistic. The environmental impacts of the process are analyzed in a life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14040. The relevant environmental midpoints are weighted and selected according to the principles of the company Robert Bosch GmbH and official public legislaton and norms. Further aggregation of midpoint indicators to environmental endpoint indicators will be evaluated, using state of the art methods like ReCiPe1, ILCD2 or others. Finally the LCC and LCA are combined in a joined indicator. 1: Method for estimation of environmental effects (Inst. RIVM and Radboud University, CML and Pré Consulting). 2: ILCD handbook,developed by the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC).
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